8051 µController

Microchip Family

AVR Family

ARM7 Family













Embedded Systems

The embedded systems is one of the least studied high-tech arenas on the planet, despite the vast number of products produce that change people’s lives. Now that microprocessors and microcontrollers have become pervasive in so many devices, the ability to use them has become almost a requirement for Psocmany technical people. There is an incredible diversity of applications for embedded processors. Microcontrollers are the driving component behind nearly every digital device. They control everything from the cell phone in your pocket to the NASA satellites hurling above Earth at a speed of over 17,000 miles per hour. What microcontrollers do is process inputs from the real world — such as a temperature sensor — and then respond as programmed by flipping a series of switches on or off, as with a light emitting diode (LED).

Selecting a particular processor for a given application is usually a function of the designer’s familiarity with a particular architecture. Microprocessor based machines usually have a Von Neumann architecture with a single memory for both programs and data to allow maximum flexibility in allocation of memory. Microcontroller chips, on the other hand, frequently embody the Harvard architecture, which has separate memories for programs and data.


Learning to design and develop a microcontroller system without any practical hands-on experience is a bit like trying to learn to ride a bike from reading book.

Several different skills are required for successful embedded hardware design. Here are some of the basic things you need to know how:

• Interpret design requirements for the design of an embedded controller.
• Read and understand the manufacturer’s specification sheet.
• Select appropriate ICs for the design.
• Interface the CPU, memory, and I/O devices to a common bus.
• Design simple I/O (input/output) interfaces.
• Define the decoding and interconnection of the major components.
• Perform a worst-case analysis of the timing and loading of all signals.
• Understand the software development cycle for a microcontroller.
• Debug and test the hardware and software designs